"Now it happened, as soon as Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, and Jacob had scarcely gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. He also had made savory food, and brought it to his father, and said to his father, 'Let my father arise and eat of his son's game, that your soul may bless me.' And his father Isaac said to him, 'Who are you?' So he said, 'I am your son, your firstborn, Esau.' Then Isaac trembled exceedingly, and said, 'Who? Where is the one who hunted game and brought it to me? I ate all of it before you came, and I have blessed him--and indeed he shall be blessed.' When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with an exceedingly great and bitter cry, and said to his father, 'Bless me--me also, O my father!' But he said, 'Your brother came with deceit and has taken away your blessing'" (Gen. 27:30-35).
One can imagine what would have happened had Esau caught Jacob in disguise! He may have tried to kill his younger brother on the spot! But, Jacob completed his scheme without detection and left his father, proud of himself, no doubt. When the real Esau came in with a wonderful meal for his father, Isaac quickly figured out what had happened and "trembled exceedingly." He is shaken to the core and certainly felt embarrassed, ashamed, and disappointed. He realizes his twofold error: (1) In not properly identifying Jacob pretending to be Esau and, more significantly, (2) In not coming to terms with the fact that his preference for Esau and desire to give him a great blessing of preeminence was both unwise and wicked since Esau was carnally-minded and God had already declared which of the brothers would be greater. Isaac has been struggling against God's will on this point, and I think he realizes it. This is why Isaac will not curse Jacob or withdraw the blessing. He realizes that even though it was secured sinfully, that blessing should not have been given to Esau anyway. Esau explodes in frustrated agony! He cannot believe what has happened!
"And Esau said, 'Is he not rightly named Jacob? For he has supplanted me these two times. He took away my birthright, and now look, he has taken away my blessing!' And he said, 'Have you not reserved a blessing for me?' Then Isaac answered and said to Esau, 'Indeed I have made him your master, and all his brethren I have given to him as servants; with grain and wine I have sustained him. What shall I do now for you, my son?' And Esau said to his father, 'Have you only one blessing, my father? Bless me--me also, O my father!' And Esau lifted up his voice and wept. Then Isaac his father answered and said to him: 'Behold, your dwelling shall be of the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above. By your sword you shall live, and you shall serve your brother; and it shall come to pass when you become restless that you shall break his yoke from your neck'" (Gen. 27:36-40).
Indeed, Jacob was properly named. Nevertheless, Esau helped his younger brother play the role of the supplanter in the first case by selling his birthright for a meal! Esau was foolish and profane (cf. Heb. 12:16). He diligently tried to change his father's mind with his passionate plea and tears, but Isaac would not repent of what he had done (cf. Heb. 12:17). Isaac has come to terms with the fact that he cannot rightly bless Esau as preeminent over Jacob; it simply was not God's will. The Abrahamic covenant would be fulfilled in Jacob's lineage, not Esau's. Still, Isaac is able to give a significantly lesser blessing to his elder son--though certainly not the blessing he wanted (cf. Heb. 11:20). Esau would survive by force; he would not have nations serve him as would be the case with Jacob's descendants. Neither Esau nor his descendants would prosper to the level of Jacob and his descendants. In fact, they would serve them at various times. The history of the Israelite and Edomite peoples illustrates the correctness of these prophecies.
"So Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing with which his father blessed him, and Esau said in his heart, 'The days of mourning for my father are at hand; then I will kill my brother Jacob'" (Gen. 27:41). One gets the sense that the relationship between Esau and Jacob to this point was never good, and now it is much worse. Esau's bitterness would lead him to murder, if given the proper opportunity. Esau loved his father enough to wait to commit the heinous act until his father was dead and unable to be disappointed by Esau's wickedness. But, Esau's plot is made known to Rebekah and she instructs Jacob to flee to her brother Laban in Haran. This was only intended to be a temporary measure, until Esau's wrath cooled. She did not want both Isaac and Jacob to die on the same day!